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The Performance Pipe Field Handbook

Table of Contents

NOTICE .....................................................................................................8
INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................10
CAUTIONS AND NOTICE ......................................................................11
Fusion and Joining ...................................................................................11
Leakage At Fusion Joints .......................................................................11
Liquid Hydrocarbon Permeation ............................................................11
Weight, Unloading and Handling ............................................................12
Testing .......................................................................................................12
Protection Against Shear and Bending Loads .....................................12
Subfreezing Temperatures .....................................................................13
Static Electricity ........................................................................................13
Electric Tools ............................................................................................14
Coils ..........................................................................................................14
Locating ....................................................................................................15
Burial .........................................................................................................15
Application Limitations ............................................................................15
M & I PRODUCTS AND FEATURES ....................................................16
Identification Stripes and Colors ............................................................18
Typical Physical Properties ....................................................................19
Pressure Rating Design ..........................................................................22
Pressure Surge ........................................................................................24
Pressure Class (PC) ...............................................................................24
Working Pressure Rating (WPR) ...........................................................25
WPR for Typical Operating Conditions .................................................26
WPR for Other Operating Conditions ....................................................26
Chemical Resistance ..............................................................................27
FLUID FLOW ............................................................................................28
Air Binding and Vacuum Release ..........................................................28
Inside Diameter ........................................................................................28
Hazen-Williams ........................................................................................29
Manning .....................................................................................................30
Comparative Flows for Slipliners ...........................................................32
Compressible Gas Flow .........................................................................36
Fitting and Valve Friction Losses ..........................................................37
THERMAL EFFECTS .............................................................................38
Unrestrained Thermal Effects .................................................................38
End Restrained Thermal Effects ............................................................38
Expansion Joints ......................................................................................41
Heat Transfer ...........................................................................................41
ABOVE GRADE SUPPORTING ............................................................42
Support Spacing ......................................................................................44
BURIED PIPE DESIGN ...........................................................................47
Groundwater Flotation .............................................................................47
WATER ENVIRONMENT DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ....................47
External Hydraulic Pressure ....................................................................48
Submergence Weighting ........................................................................49
Floating Pipelines ....................................................................................53
RECEIVING AND HANDLING ................................................................58
Receiving Inspection ................................................................................58
Unloading ..................................................................................................59
Pre-Installation Storage ...........................................................................60
Cold Weather Handling ...........................................................................62
JOINING & CONNECTIONS ...................................................................63
General Procedures ................................................................................64
Heat Fusion Joining .................................................................................65
Electrofusion .............................................................................................69
Extrusion Welding ....................................................................................69
Hot Gas Welding ......................................................................................70
Mechanical Connections .........................................................................70
Flange Connection ...................................................................................73
Flange Assembly .....................................................................................78
Special Cases ..........................................................................................80
Pipe Threads ............................................................................................82
Pullout Resistant Mechanical Joints .......................................................82
Partially Restrained Joints ......................................................................84
Branch Connections ................................................................................85
Repair Sleeves .........................................................................................87
Repair Connections .................................................................................87
UNDERGROUND INSTALLATION ........................................................88
Pipe Embedment Terminology ...............................................................89
Trenching ..................................................................................................90
Placing Pipe in the Trench ......................................................................93
Cold (Field) Bending ...............................................................................93
Installing Fabricated Fittings ...................................................................94
Pipe Embedment Soils ...........................................................................95
Embedment Backfilling............................................................................95
Joint Restraining with Thrust Blocks.......................................................96
Controlling Shear and Bending Loads...................................................96
Final Backfilling ........................................................................................99
Poisson Effects ........................................................................................99
The Poisson Effect ...................................................................................100
Connection Restraint Techniques ..........................................................101
Pullout Prevention Techniques................................................................102
Pullout Force .............................................................................................103
Special Underground Installation Techniques .......................................104
Sliplining.....................................................................................................109
Proprietary Trenchless Rehabilitation ....................................................114
SURFACE INSTALLATIONS..................................................................115
ABOVE GRADE INSTALLATIONS........................................................117
UNDERWATER INSTALLATION ...........................................................119
INSPECTION AND TESTING .................................................................120
Damage Assessment...............................................................................120
Leak Testing ............................................................................................121
OPERATIONAL GUIDELINES ...............................................................122
Disinfecting Water Mains ........................................................................122
Cleaning.....................................................................................................123
GENERAL INFORMATION .....................................................................124
INDEX .......................................................................................................130


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The Performance Pipe Field Handbook